Biologia, Bratislava 54/Suppl. 6: 29-34, 1999.
ISSN 0006-3088 (Biologia). ISSN 1335-6399 (Biologia. Section Cellular and Molecular Biology).
The relevance of ischemic preconditioning and tolerance in the neuroprotectivity of ischemia‑induced neuronal damage: an up‑to‑date review.
Institute of Neurobiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Soltesovej 4‑6, SK‑04001 Kosice, Slovakia; tel.: ++421 ‑95 765064, fax: ++421 95 765074, e‑mail: email@example.com
Received: February 18, 1999 / Accepted: October 5, 1999
The purpose of this review is to describe the progress made to date in the search for an efficient and long‑lasting neuroprotectivity to reduce the sequelae of ischemia‑ and reperfusion‑induced damage of the nervous tissue. Several neuroprotective adjuncts have been studied and, among them, ischemic tolerance was found as one possible therapeutic approach, at least for some experimental paradigms. Several experimental models that help to stimulate ischemic preconditioning and ischemic tolerance such as global‑global, global‑focal, focal‑global and focal‑focal models were investigated and found be efficient at least in some postischemic periods. While these previous models proved to be efficient with regard to longer survival time, new experimental models that help to provoke almost immediate tolerance were discovered quite recently. Several factors were found among the possible pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms forming the basis of ischemic tolerance. These factors were the modifications of the glutamate release, the activation of adenosine and its corresponding receptors, the appearance of newly and abruptly formed proteins, and mainly heat shock proteins. Quite recently, some highly specialized proteins were discovered acting on interleukin 1b receptor site.
Key words: ischemic preconditioning, ischemic tolerance, brain, spinal cord.